Gapan City is a 4th class city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Gapan is nicknamed the "Footwear Capital of the North", and it is an inseparable part of the Rice Granary of the Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 98,795 people in 18,200 households. It has a land area of 164.44 km².
Gapan City is located in the southern part of the province. It is bounded to the north by Peñaranda and San Leonardo, to the east by the Gen. Tinio, to the south by San Miguel in neighboring Bulacan province, and to the west by San Isidro.
Old records called the town Ibon. How it came to be known as Gapan is an interesting legend: when the place was still wilderness, Spanish soldiers came there on a mission when they saw natives crawling through the thick bushes. The soldier stopped them and, not knowing the local language, asked in Spanish for the name of the place. The natives knew nothing on the Spanish language and, thinking that the Spanish were asking what they were doing, answered in Tagalog, a local language "Gumagapang gapang kami". The Spanish took it as a name and henceforth called The Pueblo Gapang. In time, the letter "g" was dropped and the name Gapan sticks to this day. Another legend stated the name came from the climbing and crawling plants that were so numerous in the locality.
|Population Census of Gapan City|
Gapan was founded by the Spanish curates and officials who, in their early occupation, exercised great influence over the people and the things they were doing. History places Gapan as one of the first towns of Pampanga founded sometime in the middle part of the sixteenth century. Records of the first Catholic mission to the far east indicated that in 1595, Fathers Contres Tendilla, Caballo and Salazar were responsible for clearing the forest which later became a pueblo. In this pueblo, a church, presedencia and residential houses made of bricks and lime were constructed, now the age-old landmarks of the city.
Its foundation in 1595 makes Gapan the oldest town in Nueva Ecija and one of the oldest in the Philippines. It was likewise a big pueblo embracing an area as far as Cabanatuan City in the north, which was its barrio with the name Cabanatuan before it separated in 1750: the Sierra Madres in the East, San Miguel, Bulacan in the south and Candaba, Pampanga in the West. Gradually as the Spanish power waned and economic progress caught up in the area, the pueblo disintegrated into many pueblos until it remained to comprise only the towns of Peñaranda, General Tinio and San Leonardo (formerly called Manikling) all of Nueva Ecija province. In fact the Patron Saint Divina Pastora had its origin or residence in Barrio Callos, Peñaranda.
In 1942, the occupation by the Japanese forces in Gapan, Nueva Ecija, In 1945, entering by the Filipino troops of the 2nd, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 25th & 26th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army took Gapan together with the Novo Ecijano guerrilla resistance, Hukbalahap Communist rebel forces and the American liberation military forces of the United States Army at the end of World War II.
By virtue of Republic Act No. 9022 and its ratification in a plebiscite subsequently held on August 25, 2001, Gapan was converted into a component city of Nueva Ecija. Ernesto L. Natividad became the first city mayor of Gapan.
Liberation and the Battle of Gapan
After the Japanese air raid bombing and fighter planes invaded the town of Gapan on December 1941 during the Japanese Invasion through the occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army forces entered in Gapan on 1942 during the Japanese Occupation. When the aftermath of the retreated by all the local Novo Ecijaño guerrilla resistance and the Hukbalahap Communist guerrilla groups was the main invading commands was around side by side in the municipality of Gapan and attacking by all Imperial Japanese Army forces from the couple of few months and four years after the Counter-
Insurgencies during the Japanese Occupation from 1942 to 1945 and before the main battle commands of all joint Filipino troops under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units and the American troops under the United States Army units was liberated in Gapan on 1945 during the fighting of main battle stages.
Beginning the Battle of Gapan on January to August 1945 during the Allied Liberation, the liberators of all combined military force of the Filipino troops under the Philippine Commonwealth Army 2nd, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 25th & 26th Infantry Division and the American liberating soldiers of the United States Army was recaptured and invading to around the municipality of Gapan on January 1945 to aiding the local Novo Ecijaño guerrilla resistance and the Hukbalahap Communist guerrilla groups and attacked and defeating Japanese Imperial Army forces and Makapili rebel fighters.
From January to August 1945, the many stronghold of all combined military forces of the Filipino soldiers, military officers, tank commanders, military IFV's, military trucks and jeeps, artillery and mortars and many other military equipments under the 2nd, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 25th & 26th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and the American soldiers, military officers, tank commanders, military IFV's, military trucks and jeeps, artillery and mortars and many other military equipments under the United States Army was captured and invading the military battles, sieges and invading commands are bombed and destroyed around the plains, green fields, rice fields, rivers, forests and many others are burned and they captured and invading the battle, local military raids and invading commands are bombed and destroyed around the streets, old buildings and houses, villages, Roman Catholic churches, municipal town halls, town plazas and many others through aiding the local Novo Ecijaño guerrilla resistance and the Hukbalahap Communist guerrilla groups was side by side by attacked and defeating Japanese Imperial Army forces and Makapili militias from the couple of seven months and one year during the liberating battles, sieges, local military raids and invading the municipal town of Gapan during the liberation.
Start the joint and combined Allied military and guerrilla main sieges and invasions of the military field camps and garrisons of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces and the Makapili headquarters in the municipal town of Gapan. The stronghold of all combined Filipino soldiers and officers under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units, the American soldiers of the United States Army units and local Novo Ecijano resistance groups was invaded and attacking sieges of the military field camps and garrisons of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces and the headquarters of the Makapili was entering the camps and they inside to main attack and fought against the Japanese Imperial Army soldiers and Makapili rebels. The aftermath of the Allied Filipino and American sieges and invasions of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces and Makapili militia groups in Gapan, the decisive successfully victories of all the stronghold the joint Filipino troops and officers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units, the American soldiers of the United States Army units and local Novo Ecijano resistance fighters are saluted and captured and retaking the Japanese field camps and garrisons and the Makapili headquarters at the town municipalities after the fighting commands and surrendered and retreating Japanese troops and Makapili rebel forces.
Meanwhile, the re-taken and capturing of the Japanese military field camps and garrisons and the headquarters of the Makapili in Gapan was there inside by the joint military forces of the Filipino soldiers and officers under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units and the American soldiers of the United States Army units including the local Novo Ecijano guerrilla resistance was pole flag raising of down of the Japanese flag for the Imperial Japanese military through the capturing and taken the up of the joint United States flag and the Philippine war flag for the joint United States and Philippine Commonwealth military after the fighting of the siege and invading commands for the victorious of the stronghold combined Filipinos and Americans.
The Aftermath of the Battle of Gapan on August 1945, the local Philippine Commonwealth military and Novo Ecijano guerrilla resistance casualties during the fighting and succeeding battles, invasions and sieges includes of all Filipino troops and officers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 2nd, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 25th & 26th Infantry Division was over 4,470 killed in action and over 15,300 wounded in action, the American troops and officers of the United States Army was over 2,400 killed in action and over 6,000 wounded in action, while the local Novo Ecijano guerrilla resistance groups was suffered over 400 killed in action and over 1,140 wounded in action, the Hukbalahap Communist groups over 720 killed in action and over 1,350 wounded in action. From the part of Japanese Imperial Army forces over 25,000 killed in action, 58,000 wounded in action and over 14,000 captured in action, the Makapili militia groups over 400 killed in action, 670 wounded in action and over 1,260 captured in action. The joint Filipino soldiers and officers under the Philippine Commonwealth Army units and the American soldiers and officers of the United States Army units include with the local Novo Ecijano and Hukbalahap Communist resistance fighters to saluted on their decisive successfully victories after the invasions, sieges and battle main commands as they captured the municipal town of Gapan after the war.
The Sangguniang Panlungsod is the legislative body of the City Government of Gapan City. City Vice Mayor Rodel Matias is the Presiding Officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. The City Council has 12 members: 10 elected at large as City Councilors, plus the Liga ng mga Barangay (LnB) President and the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Federation President. The following are the members of the Sangguniang Panlungsod:
City Mayor: Hon. Maricel G. Natividad-Nagaño, M.D City Vice Mayor: Hon. Crisanto V. Velayo II
Sangguniang Panlungsod members:
- Hon. Inocencio T. Bautista Jr
- Hon. Ceferino G. Hernandez
- Hon. Leoncio D. Mangahas
- Hon. Manuel D. Bautista
- Hon. Gemma C. Pangilinan
- Hon. Danilo A. De Guzman
- Hon. Arnel A. Tecson
- Hon. Susan H. Mariano
- Hon. Romulo P. Maglalang
- Hon. Diomedes G. Matias
Liga President: Hon. Arthur V. Velayo
From June 2013 to December 2014, the Sangguniang Panglungsod was able to enact 24 ordinances. Some of the important ordinances the City Council approved were the Gapan Land Transportation Code, the Gapan Solid Waste Management Code, the ordinance creating the Public Order and Safety Division and the ordinances on the Supplemental budget of the city government.
Aside from the ordinances, the Sangguniang Panlungsod also approved 59 resolutions. Some of the resolutions approved were the following: (a) requesting the Department of Agriculture to provide farm-to-market road and farm inputs; (b) requesting the Philippine National Bank to extend from 7 to 10 years the payment period for the loan used for building the new public market; (c) providing 300 square meters for the use of the Bureau of Fire Protections and others.
Physical characteristics of the city
The City of Gapan is located in the southeastern part of Nueva Ecija. It is presently bounded on the north by the Municipality of San Leonardo; on the east by the Municipalities of Peñaranda and Gen. Tinio; on the west by the Municipality of San Isidro and on the south by the Municipality of San Miguel, Bulacan.
There are twenty five (25) barangays comprising the city with a total land area of 18,568 hectares. Barangay Macabaklay has the biggest land area with 4,506 hectares.
Gapan is 96 kilometers away from Manila; 19 kilometers away from Cabanatuan and 45 kilometers away from San Fernando, Pampanga.
Topography, slope & elevation
The City has flat terrains at the center and western part and a rolling terrain at the eastern side (beside the Sierra Madre mountain range).
Physiography & soils
Clayish is the general classification of the soil which is very suitable for palay production. It is also good for other kinds of agri-crops such as root crops, vegetables and fruit trees.
Drainage, tributary patterns & catchment areas
The Pampanga River and Malimba River are the two main rivers that drain the city. These two rivers flow southwest and pass through the Province of Pampanga.
8,446 hectares or 46% of the total land area of Gapan City is devoted for agricultural purposes; 6,583 hectares is grassland/pasture land; 3,324 hectares is considered as built-area; 254.27 hectares are inland fisheries.
Ground water is the main source of potable water supply in the City which comes from privately-owned deep wells, hand pumps and the local water utility firm. Barangays San Vicente, San Lorenzo, San Nicolas, Sto Niño, Bayanihan, Malimba, Sto. Cristo Norte, Sto. Cristo Sur, San Roque, Mangino and Pambuan are served by the Gapan Water District.
Water resources for agricultural purposes come from the spring in Minalungao cave and from Pantabangan dam. Other sources are deep wells, small farm reservoir, small water impounding pond and shallow wells which were constructed/installed by the City Government.
The total population of the City as of year 2007 census conducted by NCSO was recorded at 98,795 and the projected population for CY 2011 was 120,718 wherein Mangino is the most thickly populated barangay. The average population density is 650 persons per square kilometer.
50.52% of the total population while 49.48% is female. About 66% of the population resides in the rural areas while 34% dwell in the urban villages. In terms of population distribution by age, 36.89% belong to the 14 years old and below while 63.11% are in the 15 years and above category.
The City’s average population growth rate is about 2.789 %.
Roman Catholic is the dominant religion in the City. About 50% of the entire population belong to the Catholic Church. Other residents belong to the Iglesia Ni Cristo, Methodist, Born Again, Baptist, Rizalista, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh Day Adventist, Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints.
Language and dialects
Ninety-eight percent (98%) of the total population speaks and understands Tagalog while the remaining 2% speak various dialects such as Ilocano, Capampangan, Bicolano and Cebuano.
For CY 2011 Gapan has a projected total household of 27,856. The average family size is 5 persons per household.
Majority of the labor force works in the agriculture sector. This is followed by the trade, services and manufacturing/agri-business sectors.
Current major sources of income include farming, slipper making, fishponds, poultry and piggery, and commercial establishments.
The city of Gapan held tremendous promise not only in its natural resources but also in its potentials in agri base industries and in footwear industries which help sustain its virtual role in agricultural and industrial production. Commercial and trade activities in the city are further accelerated by the influx of financing lending institution and new businesses.
The main objective of the city government is to give quality and globally competitive education to all students through the development of moral values, promotion of health and sports, revival of cultures and construction of modern facilities.
In the thirty-three (33) public elementary schools and six (6) private elementary schools, there are more than 15,000 pupils. At the secondary education level, there are ten (10) secondary schools, of which 8 are public national high schools and 2 private secondary schools with a total enrollment of more than 9,000 students. The average classroom to student ratio in public elementary level is 1: 36 and in public secondary education level is 1: 51.
In the collegiate level, there are 217 students at the Divina Pastora College and more than 600 students at Nueva Ecija University of Science & Technology enrolled in different courses. The five computer schools in the city has more than 1,600 enrollees. The City Government under Mayor Tinio provides regular budget for NEUST to pay the salaries of the 33 instructors and to maintain the facilities. About P4 million a year is budgeted by the City Government for NEUST.
The City Government under Mayor Tinio has a scholarship program designed to provide assistance to indigent and deserving college students. A scholar of the City Government gets P5,000 per semester or P10,000 in one year.
Mayor Christian Tinio and the Sangguniang Panlunsod also established the Gapan City Technical School or GCTS to provide the youth with technical skills which they can use for self-employment or wage employment. Welding, Plumbing, Beauty Care, Massage Therapy and Computer Hardware Servicing are the courses being offered by the GCTS. 66 have graduated from Welding since the school started in April 2011; 13 students finished Massage Therapy; 12 finished Plumbing and 22 from Computer Hardware Servicing. At present, there are enrollees studying Welding (4th Batch), Massage Therapy (2nd Batch), Computer Hardware Servicing (2nd Batch) and Beauty Care (1st Batch).
Schools in Gapan City
- Balante Elementary School
- San Nicolas National High School
- San Nicolas Central School
- Divina Pastora College
- Juan R. Liwag Memorial High School
- Gapan North Elementary School
- Gapan South Elementary School
- Gapan East Central School
- Mangino Elementary School
- Village Montessori School
- Sheperdess Montessori
- The Great Sheperd Montessori
- San Roque Elementary School
- San Roque High School
- Pambuan Elementary School
- Asian Institute of E-Commerce (AIE) - Gapan Campus
- Gapan Computer Technical Institute
- ACLC College (Gapan Campus)
- Allen Institute of Technology
- College for Research and Technology
- Mabuga Elementary School
- Sta.Cruz Elementary School
- Sta.Cruz National High School
- Velcar Elementary School
- United Methodist Learning School
- Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology – Gapan Academic Extension Campus